E-ISSN 0331-8753 | ISSN 0794-5698
 

Original Research 


Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani.

Abstract
The study involves the extraction of oil from the seeds of lagenaria vulgaris (Calabash) using soxhlet apparatus. The physicochemical properties of the calabash seeds oil analyzed were; crude oil yield (37.8%), density of oil (0.925g/cm), acid value of oil (5.6mgKOH/g) and saponification value (190.1mgKOH/g). Catalytic transesterification was carried out using the oil produced in a microwave to yield biodiesel. A comparative analysis of the biodiesel produced from the extracted oil using two different catalysts; Amberlyst 15 ion exchange resin and calcium oxide (waste eggshell) was carried out. The biodiesel production was conducted under different catalyst concentrations, different temperature range and different time (minutes). The best yield of 95.07% was achieved with treated waste eggshell at 60 C, 5%catalyst to oil ratio and 40% methanol to oil volume ratio after 40 minutes. Biodiesel characterization showed; specific gravity (0.890g/cm3), acid value (0.7mgKOH/g), API gravity (27.5g/cm), kinematic viscosity (5.6mm2/s), cloud point (3.50 C), pour point (-30 C), copper strip corrosion test (1b), flash point (138 C),
cetane/diesel index (35.1). The result shows that the biodiesel quality parameters were within the acceptable limits set by ASTM, although blends and additives maybe needed to improve performance.

Key words: Biodiesel, Transesterification, Amberlyst 15, Eggshell.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani. Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts . Nig. J. Basic Appl. Sci.. 2018; 26(2): 88-96. doi:10.4314/njbas.v26i2.13


Web Style

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani. Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts . www.njbas-udus.com/?mno=302644070 [Access: September 20, 2019]. doi:10.4314/njbas.v26i2.13


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani. Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts . Nig. J. Basic Appl. Sci.. 2018; 26(2): 88-96. doi:10.4314/njbas.v26i2.13



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani. Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts . Nig. J. Basic Appl. Sci.. (2018), [cited September 20, 2019]; 26(2): 88-96. doi:10.4314/njbas.v26i2.13



Harvard Style

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani (2018) Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts . Nig. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 26 (2), 88-96. doi:10.4314/njbas.v26i2.13



Turabian Style

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani. 2018. Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts . Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 26 (2), 88-96. doi:10.4314/njbas.v26i2.13



Chicago Style

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani. "Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts ." Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 26 (2018), 88-96. doi:10.4314/njbas.v26i2.13



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani. "Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts ." Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 26.2 (2018), 88-96. Print. doi:10.4314/njbas.v26i2.13



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

A. Umar, A. Uba, M. L. Mohammed, M. N. Almustapha, C. Muhammad, J. Sani (2018) Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production From Lagenaria Vulgaris Seed Oil Using Amberlyst 15 Ion Exchange Resin and Eggshell as Catalysts . Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 26 (2), 88-96. doi:10.4314/njbas.v26i2.13