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Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

The Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences is a biannual journal published by the UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto. The objective of the journal shall be the advancement of science in all its aspects of theory, principles, methodology and practice, with emphasis on areas of common interest to all scientists. Papers for the Journal are to be original contribution. The authors are entirely responsible for the accuracy of data and statements. It is also the responsibility of authors to seek ethical clearance and written permission from persons or agencies concerned, whenever copyrighted material is used.

Manuscripts:  The text should be typed using double-space in Microsoft word format. The text should be in single-column format using Arial narrow font size 12. Manuscripts should be written in clear and concise English. It is important to leave a margin of at least 2.5 cm at the top, bottom, left and right margins. Scientific and non-English name(s) should be italicised.

The manuscript should be prepared in the following format: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Statistical analysis, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, and References.

Title:  Short titles not more than 15 words, which identify the subject are preferred for indexing and information retrieval purposes.  The title should be concise and informative. Abbreviations and formulae should be avoided where possible. The title page should include the names of author(s), (i.e. Initial(s) followed by Surname) professional affiliation and the complete address (including e-mail), telephone number of the corresponding author. Contact details should be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

Abstract:  An abstract, not exceeding 200 words in one block paragraph should precede the introduction.  Reference should not be cited in the abstract. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, methodology, results and major conclusions.

Introduction: This section should include a concise background information, statement of the problem, justification and objectives of the research.

Materials and Methods: A comprehensive and straight forward description of procedures and techniques should be provided in this section. Methods adopted should be adequately acknowledged, supporting documents should be provided for novel methods developed by authors.

Statistical analysis: A brief description of how generated data was processed and presented.

Results and Discussion: The results should be presented concisely in the following formats: text, Tables, Figures or Plates which should be preceded by descriptive notes. Extensive interpretation of the results should be reserved for the discussion section. The discussion should provide an in-depth interpretation of the results and relate them to existing knowledge in the field. It should not contain extensive repetitions of the results. This section may be presented as Results followed by Discussion or combined as Results and Discussion.


This section is a summarised presentation of major findings of the research. Reference citations and explanatory notes are highly discouraged in this section.

Figures, Tables and Plates:  Each illustration should have a caption which should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Table caption should be written on top of the Table, while caption of Plate and Figure should be written below. All symbols and abbreviations used should be defined. Figures, Tables and Plates should be numbered consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text by use of Arabic numbers. Example: Figure 1:….…, Figure 2: ………, Figure 3: …………….., etc. All Plates, Figures and Tables should be referred to as close as possible to where they appear in the manuscript. Example: Results of students’ performance in Geography exams are presented in Table 1.

References:  References must be properly cited in the manuscript and fully listed in the list of reference section. Spelling of surname(s) and year of publication should be consistent in both cases. Initials of author(s) should not be used while citing references, nor is the use of et al. allowed in the list of reference section. All references should be listed alphabetically.  Titles of Journals should be in full. References to theses, abstracts, unpublished data, personal communication and manuscripts in preparation not yet in press should be excluded from the list.  Reference to such sources should appear parenthetically in the text. 

Examples of reference citations are as follows:

In-text Citation:

(a) More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.

Groups of references should be cited/listed first chronologically and should be separated by a semi-colon. Examples: (Allan, 1999, 2000a, 2000b; Allan and Jones, 1999; Jatau et al., 2015; Sam and Andy, 2002).

(b). Single author: author's surname and the year of publication. Example:

(Jatau, 2016) or Jatau (2016)...

(c). Two authors: both authors' surnames and the year of publication. Example:

(Jatau and Ibro, 2016) or Jatau and Ibro (2016)...

(d). Three or more authors: first author's surname followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication. Example: Geer et al. (2016) or (Geer et al., 2016)


List of References/Bibliography

1. Journal publication

Anomohanran, O. (2014). Determination of the Protective Capacity of the Aquitard Stratum in Some Coastline Towns of Delta State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science22(1&2): 11-17.

Bala, A.Y. and Sule, H. (2012).Vectorial potential of cockroaches in transmitting parasites of medical importance in Arkilla, Sokoto, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences20(2), 111-115.

Muhammad, A.S., Saidu, Y. Bilbis, L.S., Onu, A. Isezuo, S.A. Sahabi, S. (2014). Effect of Dried Lake Salt (Kanwa) on Lipid profile and Heart Histology of Female Albino Rats. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science22(3&4): 73-78.

Online article impress (no volume or issue number)

Mohammed, M.L., Mbeleck, Patel, D.R., Niyogi, D., Sherrington, D.C. and Saha, B. (2014).Greener and efficient epoxidation process. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2014.08.001. 

2. Reference to a book

Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., (2000). The Elements of Style, 4th ed. Longman, New York, Pp. 85

3. Reference to a chapter in an edited book

Mohammed, M. L. and Saha, B. (2016). Greener and Sustainable Approach for the Synthesis of Commercially Important Epoxide Building Blocks Using Polymer-Supported Mo(VI)Complexes as Catalysts, In: Sengupta, A. K. (ed). Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction : A Series of Advances, Volume 22, 1st edition, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA. 

4. ebook:

Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink DOI: 10.1007/b138965.

5. Published Conferences, seminars and meetings

Eidenberger, H., Breiteneder, C. and Hitz, M., (2002).'A Framework for Visual Information Retrieval', in S-K. Chang, Z. Chen & S-Y.Lee (Eds.), Recent advances invisual information systems: Proceedings of 5th International conference on Computing Technology, Hsin Chu, Taiwan, March 11-13, 2002, 105-116.

6. Patent

Moore, M.L., Yamashita, D., (1998). An array of separate reactor cells containing a solid reaction support medium. Smithkline Beecham Corporation, US Patent 5792431.

Charges:  Reviewed manuscripts are published only if a charge of Thirty five Thousand Naira  (N35,000.00) (or $150.00 for international contributors) only payable to the Editor-in-Chief, Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, UsmanuDanfodiyoUnoversity, Sokoto, Nigeria. Manuscript in excess of 12 typed, double spaced pages on A4 paper attract additional charge of seven hundred naira (N700)         (or $8.00) per page. Photographs and plates especially coloured would be surcharged the cost of off-setting in addition to normal page charges.  All contributors shall henceforth pay the sum of six thousand Naira (N6,000.00 or $50.00 for international contributors) only as handling charges.

Proofs:  Galley-proofs will be sent to the author of correspondence.  They should be returned within 48 hours of receipt after correction. Corresponding Author will receive two copies of the journal free of charge, however additional copies may be purchased at 75% of the cost if ordered when the proofs are returned.

Book Reviews: Editors and publishers of books in Basic and Applied Sciences are invited to send copies of their publications to the Editor-in-Chief.  Book review charges range from five to twenty thousand naira (N5,000.00– N20,000.00).

Subscription rates for a single issue: (Surface mail included).

Individual: Nigeria        N3000.00

                  Africa          $50.00

                 Others         $80.00

Institutions:Nigeria        N5000.00

                  Africa          $100.00

                  Others         $150.00

Advertisement rates:

Full page                       N75,000.00/$300

Half-page                      N45,000.00/$200

Quarter page                 N25,000.00/$100

Inside front/back page    N100,000.00/$400

Correspondence:  All editorial correspondence should be addressed to the Editor-in Chief, Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto.

Correspondence concerning subscription, backlog, offprint and advertising should be addressed to the Business Editor, Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto.

The following e-mail addresses can also be used for correspondence:

The Journal is available at the African Journal Online at;





This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.

The articles in Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.